Public Lectures 2010
Grand Prize 2010: HWANG Byung-ki
- Tradition and Creation of Korean Music
- September 18, 2010 (14:30-16:30)
- IMS Hall
- Mr. Tomoaki Fujii (President of the International Institute for Cultural Studies)
Public Lecture by Mr. Hwang was held in ACROS FUKUOKA in 18 September, and looking back at his 60-year history of kayagum, Mr. Hwang spoke passionately about the future of “traditional music”. The venue was filled with beautiful music as five Korean performers played Mr. Hwang’s masterpieces.
The first part of the evening was a conversation between Mr. Tomoaki Fujii, President of the International Institute for Cultural Studies and Mr. Hwang Byung-ki. Themes included the unique features of the kayagum, Mr. Hwang’searly encounters with traditional Korean music, and episodes relating to how he became a musician, alongside his thoughts about the world of music.
Mr. Hwang said, “I began composing music at the age of 26. I believed that real succession in traditional music was to connect the past and the future by adding my own creation to traditional music.” Referring to his masterpiece, Chimhayng-moo, he said, “e traditional music at that time was the succession from the Joseon dynasty era. I went further back into the Silla dynasty era for my composition because I wanted to break through the tradition. ere was no sheet music le from that era. So I composed this dance music by what the relics, historic remains, and the sculptures from the era spoke to me.” Mr. Fujii pointed out that the rhythm known as jangdan indicates a signicant dierence between Korean and Japanese traditional music. is is a triple rhythm with alternate long and short beats and is characteristic of Korean traditional music. Mr. Hwang explained close connection with the philosophy of yin and yang, and the belief that such music generates life itself.
Performance of Traditional Korean Music
Mr. Hwang, with ve Korean musicians, played some of his most famous compositions. In addition to Mr. Hwang performing Chimhyang-moo, ve other pieces were performed, including Nakdoeum, a piece for geomungo & janggu, and a vocal work Chucheonsa (Swinging Song). ere was enthusiastic applause from the audience.
Academic Prize 2010: James C. SCOTT
- Domineering State, Indomitable People
- September 17, 2010 (18:30-20:30)
- IMS Hall
- Professor Kiichi Fujiwara (Professor of Graduate Schools for Law and Politics at the University of Tokyo)
- Professor Hiromu Shimizu (Director of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at the University of Kyoto, Vice-chair of Fukuoka Prize Academic Prize Selection Committee)
After a keynote speech by Professor James C. Scott, who has extensively researched the relationship between the rule of the modern state and those people it seeks to govern, Professor Kiichi Fujiwara, Professor of Graduate Studies at the University of Tokyo, acted as coordinator in a discussion that also included Professor Hiromu Shimizu, Director of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at the University of Kyoto.
“Upland peoples are flexible and full of dynamism!”
Most regions of Southeast Asia are said to be populated by two dierent types of peoples – upland peoples and lowland peoples. Lowland peoples have social classes, taxes, history and culture, and above all are identied as wet rice farmers. Wet rice farming involves gathering people together, and combining abilities.
This is extremely important in order to be able to concentrate crops eciently in a small area. On the other hand, upland peoples are involved in slash-and-burn agriculture and dispersed cultivation. No permanent rule of state exists and they have no structured taxation system, but they tend to be comparatively egalitarian, whilst at the same time being culturally and linguistically diverse. These dierences between upland and lowland peoples are considered permanent. Throughout history, however, many people have, at similar times, moved from upland to lowland areas, and also from lowland to upland areas. Prior to the 20th century, lowland people oen moved to mountain areas and became upland peoples. ey did this in order to escape military service, taxes or disease, or perhaps to escape from a state that represented dierent political or religious interests to them.
Mountainous areas lend themselves to dispersed social structures, since genealogies gradually become fragmented. In other words, large groups become smaller groups, and then become fragmented into nuclear families. Under pressure, these groups grow ever smaller. People in upland areas engage in wet rice farming if they are not under pressure from the state, but when pressure is placed on them they become slash-and-burn farmers. If this pressure increases further, they may become hunter-gatherers. In this way, external pressures have a signicant impact on the type of agriculture in which they engage. ese choices are not made out of free will. In most areas, there are three choices available – wet rice farming, slash-and-burn agriculture, and hunter-gatherer subsistence, and people have made a choice between these three.
They have usually made the best choice available in the light of their relationship with the state. In addition to this, upland peoples are often marked by the fact that they have usually chosen not to hold onto their own history, or that they have held on only to the history that they need, such as knowing where they came from. These choices are usually political or strategic applications in regard to the state, which exists in the lowlands, which are not formed from simple or primitive conditions.
- ---Professor Kiichi Fujiwara (Professor of Graduate Schools for Law and Politics at the University of Tokyo)
- Professor Scott has lived among, and gained the trust of, agricultural people and hill tribes who are engaged in a range of techniques in order to preserve their lifestyles, while not engaging in direct resistance with authority, and has brought to light the realities of day-to-day life among peoples engaged in agriculture and livestock farming. The study of politics becomes more dicult the more you consider people who have no relationship to politics. It is impossible to understand what or dinary people think unless one engages with them on a personal level, and Professor Scott has the humility to work at this very thing. His great curiosity in regard to the unknown, and his admiration and aection for people who do not have the authority to
- ---Professor Hiromu Shimizu(Director of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at the University of Kyoto,Vice-chair of Fukuoka Prize Academic Prize Selection Committee)
- The year before last, I visited the Lahu people in northern Thailand in order to carry out a survey. The Lahu people have a very traditional lifestyle, engaging in slash-and-burn agriculture, but at the same time have taken on board new things such as parabola antennas for satellite broadcasting and motorcycles. They are not completely independent, but rather have a dynamic relationship with the outside world, in regard to which they live in a perpetual state of tension and rejection, while at the same time accepting those aspects they find positive.
Academic Prize 2010: MORI Kazuko
- The Chinese Development Model – Current Development and Possibilities for Universalization
- September 18, 2010 (17:00-19:00)
- IMS Hall
- Prof. Satoshi Amako (Professor of Waseda University’s Graduate School of Asia-Pacic Studies)
Prof. Nobuhiro Horii (Professor of Kyushu University Graduate
School of Economics)
Professor Mori’s lecture was based on observations of the future – as to whether China’s development model could become a standard for the rest of the world. In the second half, Professor Satoshi Amako of Waseda University’s Graduate School, and Associate Professor Nobuhiro Horii, of Kyushu University Graduate School, joined Professor Mori in a Panel Discussion.
When researching contemporary China, we must be careful of the infinite paradoxes that exist, which can be inexplicable to us. We therefore need to be skeptical. In my research on contemporary China, I have employed three approaches to face these challenges.
- The first is the “tripartite structure theory”, which attempts to understand Chinese society not as a two-part structure based on central and regional government, but by acknowledging the existence of additional peripheral autonomous units.
- The second is the “Asianization of China”, focusing on the common ground between China and other Asian countries, which are treading the same path to democratization.
- The third approach is a “focus on systematization”, when considering changing policies and unchanging systems. We tend to look at policies, which are subject to sudden changes, and assume that China is undergoing a new birth of reform and openness, but the fact that systems such as the public ownership of land, which is a fundamental tenet of the Chinese communist party's fiscal policy, are still being maintained is of fundamental significance.
When analyzing China in order to think about the future, we can consider four models for China’s development. There is the “standard modernization model” of democratization and liberalized markets; there is the “East Asian model” of political democratization, which is the one that has been followed by Japan since the Meiji Restoration, and more recently by Taiwan and other Asian countries; there is the “return to traditions” model, which prioritizes the traditional values of Confucianism and other teachings, and there is the “China is China” model, which views China as unique. I tend to think of China’s present and future in terms of the “East Asian model”. China has achieved 30 years of economic growth since political reforms and liberalization took place. is growth has been led by the government and the Party, and rather than a strong private sector China has developed public sector capitalism, with benets for public corporations and state nances, but a signicant gap opening up between the elite and ordinary people. ere is a range of possible explanations for this, but my tentative observation concerning the near future, would be that the Chinese development model is not a permanent model. My personal conclusion, if asked whether Chine is becoming an empire on a level with the USA, is that this is not the case, since it has not fullled the conditions of being an empire, which include whether it can provide tangible public benet and cultural power (dominant values) to the world, and whether it has sucient global economic power to prevent economic independence in its peripheries. I believe that China will, however, come to lead globalization through its sheer size and speed. For this reason, Japan needs to take note, and engage in serious analysis.
In our Panel Discussion, Professor Satoshi Amako of Waseda University’s Graduate School of Asia-Pacic Studies acted as coordinator, and Associate Professor Nobuhiro Horii, of Kyushu University Graduate School of Economics, as panelist. Professor Horii, as a specialist in the Chinese economy, spoke about the role that has been played by private sector companies, touching on Professor Mori’s statements about “public-sector capitalism” and China’s “changing policies and unchanging systems”: he commented that “I believe the systems are in fact changing”, adding that in regard to democratization, “I believe that conditions are being fullled from the point of view of economic dynamism”. Professor Mori added, “in terms of the conditions for democratization, the emergence of a liberal middle class and a growing fragmentation in the controlling elite need to be considered and closely watched from the perspective of political science”.
Questions from the oor covered topics such as religion, race and environmental problems, demonstrating a high level of interest in China, and the three professors exchanged opinions and explanations, despite the limited amount of time available. Towards the end, a question about the issue of the disputed Senkaku Islands and the relationship with Japan led Professor Mori to comment upon “China’s diplomatic skill at responding emotionally” , “a vulnerability to domestic public opinion” and the “need for both countries to move beyond the current position of seeing one another as ‘dicult’ to something more mature”; Professor Amako, in turn, expressed concern regarding the level of control exercised by the central government, but stated that “Japan’s claim to the Senkaku Islands is based on the logic of modern international society, whereas China’s claims are based on logic that predates the modern state”. is provided a neat conclusion to the debate.
Arts and Culture Prize 2010: ONG Keng Sen
- Step Across the Border – Ong Keng Sen’s challenge to a new frontier
- September 18, 2010 (13:30-15:30)
- IMS Hall
Professor Tadashi Uchino (Professor at Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University
of Tokyo, a member of the Arts and Culture Prize Selection Committee)
Hosted by Prof. Tadashi Uchino (Professor at Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, a member of the Arts and Culture Prize Selection Committee), the forum presented some of his productions with comments from Mr. Ong himself, providing the audience a glimpse into his fresh and diverse world view.
“I want to offer a diverse range of choices”
IInitially, Professor Tadashi Uchino introduced the following three major attributes of Ong Keng Sen’s work.
- Interculturalism. Since the late 1970s, he has been active across a diverse range of cultures.
- Interaction between artists and an emphasis on process in creating work, epitomized by the “Flying Circus Project” initiated by his company, eatreWorks.
- The establishment of Arts Network Asia (ANA), a grant body which support the artistic collaboration among the Asian artists.
“Mr. Ong is proactive in an energetic way across Asia and the rest of the world. Not only his achievements to date, but his potential for the next 10, 20 and 30 years should be closely watched, as he is still so young” said Professor Uchino as he began to show some of Mr. Ong’s work on screen.
The First video was of the work entitled Lear, the script for which was written by the Japanese scriptwriter Rio Kishida, based on Shakespeare’s King Lear. The six actors in the project, all of who are of dierent nationalities, each speak lines in their own language, bringing the complexities of the current world onto the stage. The style of the play attracted a lot of attention, and Lear became the masterpiece which brought Mr. Ong to worldwide fame.
The next production was Continuum- Beyond the Killing Fields, which tells the real life stories of Cambodian artists who survived the deadly persecution of the Pol Pot regime. He created on the stage “a space for a dialogue with the dead”, and the combination of video and live performance made an extremely profound impression.
Thirdly came a work entitled Geisha, which focuses on stereotypical images of Japan. In this performance, he aimed to fuse generations, cultures, and genders, transforming our perceptions of things that were once taken for granted. His direction, incorporating traditional Japanese dance and Kabuki style, along with the combination of Shamisen (a Japanese traditional three- stringed musical instrument) and contemporary electrical sounds, fascinated all of the audience.
Fourthly came Sandakan renody, an exploration of the memory of war which was based on an interview with the son of Masaichi Yamamoto, who was executed for class B/C war crimes aer the Second World War: it asks what memories of war mean, and whose memories they are. Using exible expressions involving photographs, video and live performance, the work oers the option of a wide range of interpretations, in a dierent way to official versions of history.
The 1990s demanded classical expressions on the theme of restructuring standards, while the decade from 2000 onwards has seen the broad application of theater as documentary. Mr. Ong says “my method of expression is like making a quilt. We output by bringing together many individual parts, and sewing them together, which gives a whole range of possibilities, and stimulates the imagination of the audience.” Many of those participating in the public forum expressed their eager anticipation of future presentations of his playful and mysterious world view in the next decade, saying that they would like to see his work performed in Japan.
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