Public Lectures 2012
Grand Prize 2012: Vandana SHIVA
- Earth Democracy: Cultivating Cultures of Sustainability, Justice and Peace
- Tuesday, September 11, 2012 (13:30-16:00)
- Event Hall B2F, ACROS Fukuoka
- TAKENAKA Chiharu(Professor of Rikkyo University)
- NAKAMURA Hisashi(Research Fellow of Ryukyu University)
Public Lecture by Dr. Vandana SHIVA was held in ACROS FUKUOKA in 11 September, and she introduced his idea and thought on his specialized field in his lecture, talks with panelists.
Part1: Keynote Speech by Vandana SHIVA
“Seeds, Ecosystem and Sustainability: the Society that Values Them”
Today I would like to talk about what is genuine freedom in this day and age. We are now facing crisis, such as climate changing, decrease of species, water pollution, depletion of the water, and so forth. In Lehman Shock in 2008, we witnessed longaccumulated prosperity collapsed in one night. That testifies that the traditional ideas for growth and prosperity have now become things of the past. It is a scientifically established fact that the earth has its limit in growth, for the growth consumes resources and produces waste. Moreover, political crisis narrows the freedom of people, and fear and hatred toward culture are being spread.
Twenty years ago, a new movement called globalization began. At one international conference that I attended, a pesticide manufacturing company, a former military business corporation, claimed for the ownership of living matters and lives, and insists that it was unfair that farmers possessed seeds. In reality, knowledge, lives and living matters, are all gifts from the earth in themselves and to be community properties. However, the business enterprise discussed the matter themselves, and without taking democratic process decided upon trade agreements regarding intellectual property rights. I returned to India and soon launched a project to conserve seeds. This is the Navdanya movement.
After that, the business organizations started monopolizing seeds by exercising intellectual property rights, but on the other hand, claiming it is criminal offense that farmers possessed seeds.
As a result, world seeds are now controlled by five business organizations. One company is controlling 80% of seeds that are being sold around the world, and possessing 98% of genetically modified seeds. But 80 % of food distribution is performed by smallscale firming and not by giant agricultural organizations.
For these fifteen years, food and farming have become destabilized, food intake is decreasing, and starvation is becoming increasingly serious. Business organizations are endeavoring to possess everything on earth as resources, including water, rivers, skies, and CO2, and the race for resources is spreading over the world. Businesses keep exploiting the earth and people, but do not take any responsibility for the earth and people. In this way, the earth is now facing biological crisis.
On the other hand, new protest movements are now taking place around the globe. In 2011, young ones in America began the movement called “Occupy Wall Street”. Three trillion US dollars are daily moving through the world and used as funds to greedily monopolize the land and food. The wealth is concentrated among the top 1% of income earners compared to the other 99%. This movement was originally launched by young ones to improve economy without giving impact on employment. This is a totally new, alternative one that replaces existing movement.
We need to break away from present economic system in which everything is being converted to money and limitlessly magnified, and shift to the one that gives consideration to seeds, ecosystem and the whole earth. To that end, it is necessary for us to break away from the control of businesses that are robbing us of our freedom. Money is just means, and not objective. It is required for us to reevaluate our civic role, become global citizens from consumers, and to shift from the culture of greed and robbing to the culture of consideration and sharing.
The grand prize of that I was awarded has a great impact. I believe that through our centuries of experiences in prosperous Asia, we can restore diversity-carrying Asia, better Asia, by the global implementation of “Earth Democracy”
Part2: Panel Discussion
Islamic Interest-Free Financial Principle
Takenaka: I was impressed by the keynote address by Dr. Shiva. In her address, she emphasized justice, peace and sustainability of the earth and society, and I was moved to think more deeply what it means to live as humans, live side-by-side with many other people.
Nakamura: Dr. Shiva emphasized the importance for us to share and care for one another. Keeping closing our eyes to acquisitive business practices of large corporations, and not reconsidering “Earth Democracy” dooms the world to a dismal future.
The Japanese Government permitted political right of business organizations and political donations from companies several decades earlier than the US Government did. Their political influence has led to construction of many nuclear power-generating plants in this quake-prone Japan, and as a result, we are now facing a difficult situation as everyone knows. Christianity long prohibited receiving interest on a deposit, but Bank of England first adopted this system when the bank was established. On the other hand, Islamic financial institutions charge fee for deposit and offer a loan without interest. Their idea is that if your business succeeds, then reimburse the profit to the bank; if it doesn’t succeed, then the bank will suffer the loss together with you. Would you not agree that this financial principle is to be appreciated?
Society, Relationship, and Seeds: These Are the Real Riches
Shiva: We live in hypothetical economy. The money earned by hardworking people is being used for investment gambling by few capitalists. In order to reestablish the economy and the society, we need to cut off and control this hypothetical and illusionary money, and to manage real riches. The real riches that I mean to say are our society, our relationships, seeds and produce, and brought by our caring for one another.
However, in the globalized world economy businesses decide all things, and unlimited desires are being spread on a world scale. By right business is socially accepted activity and should make profits within the boundary of certain rules and regulations. This is why business organizations need to go back to their business, and follow the social rules under democracy.
Academic Prize 2012: Charnvit KASETSIRI
- Maritime Relations around International Capital Ayutthaya: From Ryukyu to Arabia
- Friday, September 14 (18:30-20:30)
- Event Hall B2F, ACROS Fukuoka
- NITTA Eiji (Professor of Faculty of Law, Economics and Humanities, Kagoshima University)
- OKAMOTO Hiromichi (Associate Professor of Faculty of Human Culture and Science, Prefectural University of Hiroshima)
- FUJITA Kayoko (Associate Professor of College of Asia Pacific Studies, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University)
Public Lecture by Dr. Charnvit KASETSIRI was held in ACROS FUKUOKA in 14 September, and she introduced his idea and thought on his specialized field in his lecture, talks with panelists.
Part1: Keynote Speech by Charnvit KASETSIRI
“Ayutthaya - East Meets West at This Ancient Capital: rading Ships Also from Japan”
Ayutthaya is the capital of Siam, ancient Thailand, and was governed by five dynasties for 417 years from 14th to 18th century.
Ayutthaya’s main religion was Buddhism, but animism was also practiced by common people. Under the feudal system, people’s ranks were divided into four parts of the hierarchy, the king, nobles, monks and commoners respectively. Unpaid forced labor was imposed upon common people, and tax was paid either in cash or in kind. Since this capital was situated on an island surrounded by three rivers including the Chao Phraya River, it was protected from enemy attacks, and the delta area of rich floodplain was ideal rice-growing. Ayutthaya was a critical site where produce was gathered together from upstream areas,
and this brought prosperity to the kingdom.
Located between South China Sea on its east and Indian Ocean on its west, maritime transportation developed from early on in Ayutthaya. It is believed that the maritime route extended all the way from Japan
to Arabia. After the establishment of Ayutthaya Kingdom in 14th century, foreign trade became more active and continued till 18th century.
The royal family exclusively managed the foreign trade and in 17th century they gained 0.4 million baths as annual profit. This amounted to 25% of entire national budget of 1.5 million baths. Many ships came to its trading port, such as Chinese junk ships, Portuguese and Dutch ships, and Japanese trading ships licensed by the shogunate.
The exports to Japan included Sappan tree that was used as dyestuff, deer skin for making body-armor and ivory. In turn such products as copper, iron, lacquer crafts and Japanese paper were imported from Japan to Ayutthaya. Import of guns and other weapons from Europe brought changes in war strategies of Thailand and Asia.
Ayutthaya has been named to the UNESCO list of world heritage, and attracts many tourists now. Thailand suffered great flooding in 2011, but according to the data from the tourism authorities, about 5.7 million tourists visited Ayutthaya.
Among them Japanese tourists were 0.4 million, that is 30% of 1.2 million foreign visitors. From the beginning of 2012 up until June, 730,000 Japanese people visited Thailand, and 290,000 of them also visited Ayutthaya.
Part2: Panel Discussion
“Ryukyu Islands- From Ayutthaya Launching into Asia”
Nitta: We have invited two up-andcoming researchers to this discussion, Mr. Okamoto who is studying Asian maritime trade mainly that of the Ryukyu Kingdom, and Ms. Fujita who is doing research on trade relations in Europe, with a central focus on Holland.
Okamoto: Now let us take a look at communications between Ryukyu and Ayutthaya from the standpoint of Japan which is on the east side of these areas. The Ryukyu Kingdom constantly developed wide marine interchanges in Southeast Asia by dispatching trading ships as its diplomatic envoy to Ming (China), Japan, Korea, and so on.
According to “Rekidai Hoan” , an official compilation of diplomatic documents of the royal government of the Ryukyu Kingdom which was recorded in Chinese classics, Ayutthaya was the most frequently chosen destination for Ryukyu’s maritime activities.
The Ryukyu Kingdom would dispatch trading ships to Ming, Korea, Japan and others, and centering around Ayutthaya it extensively conducted intermediate trade, carrying products from various regions. In particular, it dispatched trading ships to Ming twice or three times a year during peak period between late 14th to early 15th century, and since 16th century, one to 1.5 times a year. On the other hand, Ayutthaya Kingdom also dispatched trading ships several times to Ming in 14th century immediately following the establishment of Ming Dynasty, their trade gradually declined as Ryukyu’ s trade with Ming thrived. It is considered that because Ryukyu intermediately brought Ming’ s products to Ayutthaya, the significance diminished for Ayutthaya to continue trade with Ming.
Fujita: Between 14th to 15th century, port cities of Asian coastal areas had similar spatial characteristics typical in Ayutthaya. Foreign marine traders would build settlements at fringe region of port cities based on race and nationality, and that brought international communications. To the contrary, in 17th century “Dejima” a small fan-shaped artificial island was built in the bay of Nagasaki, and trading and different ethnic groups came under strict supervision. A picture of an audience with the king of Ayutthaya show how he is hitching himself forward to receive a correspondence from his envoy, and it tells us he had a flexible and open attitude toward audience ritual as well as his positive attitude toward international exchanges. On the other hand, Dutch chief traders in Tokugawa period were admitted to the presence of tycoon hundreds of times for 200 years, but the scenes were never pictured. This is considered because the ritual had become stereotype and it was merely an occasion for foreigners to express their dutiful respect.
From these we can see a different political philosophy of the Tokugawa shogunate.
“Sukhothai – Fairyland to Thai”
Charnvit: Just adding to Mr. Okamoto’s comment, it seems that in Eastern Asia coastal countries shared the management of each part of the maritime route, and British and Dutch governed and managed all the routes.
Ms. Fujita pointed out that the kings of Ayutthaya were flexible, and Tokugawa tycoons were stern at audience rituals, and I remembered what late Prof. Ishii Yoneo of Kyoto University mentioned. He said, “Siamese kings were great traders, and had enterprising spirit toward trade.”
Nitta: Here we have received some questions from the audience: How do Thai people feel about Sukhothai and Ayutthaya? ; How is Yamada Nagamasa viewed in Thailand? What would you say, Dr. Charnvit?
Charnvit: The Sukhothai Kingdom was first established and then the Ayutthaya kingdom followed, but Sukhothai has been considered as golden age and fairyland to Thai people. Thai people value Sukhothai’ s wonderful history that was shaped without imitating Western democracy.
As for Yamada Nagamasa, Thai textbooks make little mention of him. It seems that he is regarded as a person of character, but not as a person ofgreat attainments.
Arts and Culture Prize 2012: Kidlat Tahimik
- Filming with Uchu: Dialogue with Kidlat Tahimik, Pioneer of Asian Independent Film
- Sunday, September 16 (13:30-18:30)
- Main Hall, Elgala
- ISHIZAKA Kenji (Professor of Japan Institute of the Moving Image Director of the Asian Section, Tokyo International Film Festival)
Public Lecture by Dr. Kidlat Tahimik was held in Elgala Hall in 16 September, and she introduced his idea and thought on his specialized field in his lecture, talks with panelists.
Mr. Tahimik’s installation art was exhibited in the Sculpture Lounge. A man with bamboo movie camera, life-size bamboo dolls, a Marilyn Monroe statue that is facing a goddess of the wind … Various motifs were put face to face and created magical time space that was full of indigenous atmosphere.
What Story to Tell? – Now Is the Crucial Time
Ishizaka: Apocalypse Now by Director Francis F Coppola that depicted madness of the Vietnam War was filmed in the forest in the Philippines, and actually that was coincidentally the same time and area with filmmaking of your work, Perfumed Nightmare…
Tahimik: It was only 20 Km distance from where I was filming, but I knew nothing about it then. Coppola’s was a blockbuster movie with $24 million as its production cost; on the other hand, my budget was only
$10,000. Later I saw his film and was simply impressed. My main concern back then was how to depict the strength of my fellow What Story to Tell? – Now Is the Crucial Time men, the elders of villages, and the importance of old traditions and wisdom. We have been governed by foreign cultures, and even our stomachs too are steeped in globalization through McDonald’s, KFC, and so on. But I strongly feel that whether we are from the Philippines or any other countries, our identities should be respected in the world.
Ishizaka: Mr. Sato Tadao who directed Focus on Asia, Fukuoka International Film Festival, left this witticism: “The strength of Asian movies is in their not breaking down things.” There was a scene in Apocalypse Now that a forest was burned down. Later, Coppola’s company became bankrupt, by any chance was it because he met with anger of the sylvan deity?
Tahimik: I heard his money went on running low, but in my case I was broke from the beginning. But I am very grateful to him.
Ishizaka: Director Coppola was the distributing agency of Perfumed Nightmare in the US, wasn’t he? Though there was no such word as “globalization” back then, your film Perfumed Nightmare contains various elements.
Tahimik: There is a wave of culture and films that admire the US. Even a movie filmed by a Filipino director may pass messages and values influenced by America on to the audience, and I think this is a problem. I am concerned that constant contact with foreign mental structures and values would affect our identity as Filipinos. Have you already seen my installation art exhibited in the lounge? Ifugaos, the mountain tribes who live in the Northern Philippines where you can see fascinating rice terraces, believe in Inhabian, a goddess of the wind, a goddess of typhoon. Now you see who the one more character that is facing to her. (Suddenly aiming the bamboo camera at the audience) Everyone, smile at the camera! This bamboo camera can film what you see with your own eyes and souls, and the figure of the goddess of the wind. Our traditional goddess is antithetical to Hollywood’s mass-produced movies. Now is the crucial time to think what to convey and what to show through our stories. Just copying foreign cultures won’t make us decent citizens.
Ishizaka: In the year 1977 when Perfumed Nightmare was released, the film series Star Wars also began.
Tahimik: At the end of Perfumed Nightmare I included a scene that the leading character gets power from the goddess of the wind and ascends to the space. Here the space is a metaphor, an expression of admiration toward developed countries for the Apollo and Shinkansen bullet trains. But I wanted to say that though the third world holding admiration for astronauts, they have their heroes such as the goddess of the wind.
Ishizaka: Please make a brief comment on each movie that is to be screened after this.
Tahimik: I am Furious Yellow ’94; why is Yellow Middle of Rainbow? is a documentary film on my three sons’ growth and it carries political implications for the conflict between the Marcos regime and a presidential candidate, Corazon Aquino. Memories of Overdevelopment is a story that a slave bought by Magellan, being guided by the power of the space, accomplished the first around-the-world expedition.
Ishizaka: Now please enjoy two movies, the one its screen time is changed every time, and the another one
that is now in the making but takes forever for completion.
Introduction of 3 works
- Purfumed NightMare
- 1977 / 16mm /95min.
- International Critics Award at the Berlin Film Festival(1977)
- There is nothing evern remotely nightmarish about PERFUMED NIGHTMARE. It's an enchanting and poignant experience, a totally original seriocomic creation with an infectious and exuberant energy. The film is a semi-autobiographical fable by a young Filipino about his awakening to, and reaction against, American Cultural Colonialism. Born in 1942 during the Occupation, Kidlat spent "the next 33 typhoon seasons in a cocoon of American dreams". This, then, is his perfumed nightmare: the lotusland of American technological promise. In his primitive village, he worships the heroism of the Machine, the sleek beauty of rockets, the efficiency of industrialism. He's the president of his village's Werner Von Braun fan club. he longs to visit Cape Canaveral, to experience those shimmering images he knows from movies, from soldiers, from the Voice of America. "One of the most original and poetic works of cinema made anywhere" - WERNER HERZOG
- Why is Yellow Middle of Rainbow?'94
- 1994 / 16mm /175min.
- Since 1981, Tahimik had kept on filming home movies, which were screened at YIDFF in 1989, 1991 and 1993 separately. In 1994, he continually expanded and reedited these three films, followed by the growth of the director’s own sons while overlaying Philippine history and culture, and finished this feature. - Taiwan International Documentary Festival
- Memories of Overdevelopment
- Now in the making
Mr. Tahimik came into the hall from behind while beating a gong.
Now that you have taken all the courses, you get your doctorate of filmmaking of megahits. (Then he pretended to receive the certificate.) Now, I’ll go back to my village in Ifugao and make a movie on sex in the rice terrace. Mom, look, I got a doctor’s degree and so I don’t have to work anymore. Sex plus violence; it’ll be a megahit for sure. Rambo appears in the rice terrace and rampages. I can make easy money! Oh, no, I forgot old songs. (Beating a gong and walking around.) Aha! Now I remembered. I remembered how my ancestors told me stories. Let me film a story without high-speed camera. Yes, I can do that with my bamboo camera. Let me film a story of the rice terraces. (His three sons and Mrs. Tahimik came in while playing instruments.) Let me film traditional folk stories like the goddess of the wind.Viva, Ifugao! Viva, independent!
Arts and Culture Prize 2012: G.R.Ay. Koes Murtiyah Paku Buwono
- Javanese Court Dance and Gamelan Music: From Source of Tradition to the World
- Saturday, September 15 (13:30-15:30)
- ACROS FUKUOKA
- MC / Interviewer
- TAMURA Fumiko (Associate Professor of Chikushi Jogakuen University)
Public Lecture by Ms. G.R.Ay. Koes Murtiyah Paku Buwono was held in ACROS FUKUOKA in 15 September, and she introduced his idea and thought on his specialized field in his lecture, talks with panelists.
Part1: Gamelan performance and Srimpi - Female court dance
At the close of the session, the stage turned dark. Illuminated by orange light, gamelan performance of a Javanese classical music piece "Ladrang Wilujeng" began with slow beat.
“Territory – Governed by King’s Spirit, Not by Force”
Tamura: I first heard the sound of gamelan music when I was in high school, and I felt as if I were listening to the sound that I was hearing in the mother’s womb, at the same time I was listening to the sound of the macrocosm. Ever since then I have continued my research on gamelan. My work is to study music from all around the world, and I’ve found that each race has its unique music just as each race speaks different languages. As you listened to the performance now, didn’t you feel the sound of gamelan was intriguing?
Why humans have music? Humans have enjoyed singing and dancing even before having languages. There must exist in us memories of dawn of the universe and the earth’s history of 4.6 billion years. However words cannot describe them. Each race has its unique music and dancing, but I think their root is one and the same. We have come from somewhere in the Universe and were born on earth, and the long, long history has been expressed in the sound. This is the reason why music shares something in common deep down.
In Indonesia there is a unique animism culture, and it was also influenced by Hinduism. During 13th to 14th century, Islamism also came into Indonesia and that led to the establishment of the Mataram. That descendant is the Surakarta royal family. Javanese rulers did not extend their borders by force of arms, but they determined their domain by how far their spirit, which was exalted by the power of gamelan and court dance, reached. Therefore traditional gamelan and court dance have been handed down as the prerogative and sacred treasure of royalty.
With the establishment of Republic of Indonesia in 1945, the royalism was abolished, but members of the royal family are still playing a core part culturally. Now that political support has been no more, preservation of traditional culture is faced with economic challenges. You may imagine something old-fashioned by hearing the word “traditional” , but gamelan is a live tradition that continues to progress by constantly adding new elements to the inheritance.
- ---The following piece was a court dance called Srimpi, which was written and composed particularly for this occasion by the chief performer, Mr. Saptono.
- Tamura: The poetic relics of this piece express how Ms. Murtiyah has preserved the Karaton Surakarta, the joy of receiving this prize and the hope for the future. Then Ms. Murtiyah herself put on a dance to it.
- ---Four young women gracefully and beautifully danced along with slowly flowing melody and dynamic singing voice.
- Tamura: In the course of their performance, there was a fighting scene. It depicted the struggle against forces that try to destroy traditions. In fact, Ms. Murtiyah declared against a construction project of a hotel in the court, claiming that would destroy the tradition, and was daily reported in the media as a fighting princess.
Part2: Dialogue and Demonstration by Ms. Murtiyah
Falling Flower Petals Imply Secret Feelings
Tamura: Just earlier as watching the dance performance, some of you might have been surprised to see flower petals falling from the hem of their costumes. Though Bali and Java were both influenced by the Hinduism, the Javanese culture fused with the Islamic hermeticism and inner culture has been cultivated. In Bali, people lay flowers in visible places, while in Java, people would hide flower petals inside their skirts and the falling petals are a subtle display of their hidden thoughts and feelings.
Murtiyah: Javanese court dance is sorted into the Bedhaya which is performed by nine dancers, and the Srimpi which is performed by four dancers. According to a folk story, the first Mataram king married a goddess of the sea and thus the kingdom was established, and along with gamelan performance this story is depicted in the dance. On the other hand, the Bedhaya is not for entertainment, but danced for king’s spiritual development. The king would dispel desires and concentrate on meditation, and his spirituality and inner strength are thus being elevated.
- ---Ms. Murtiyah demonstrated basic pose and movements of fingers, legs and waist of female dance. The elegant movements attracted the audience.
- Tamura: We can always hear the sound of gamelan at the Surakarta court.
- Murtiyah: The gamelan songs are decided for each ritual, and we can tell which ritual is in progress by listening to the sound.
- ---Gamelan songs for departure from the court and a wedding of the royal family were then played. Along with soldiers’ marching song, Ms. Murtiyah danced humorously, mimicking marching soldier holding a bow and an arrow.
- Tamura: We can see the princess walking like a soldier only in Japan, it never happens in Java. (Laughing and handclapping) Now we can enjoy the performance by the top five gamelan players. Please, everyone, try meditation. Through our everyday life, the center of our heart has become higher, so let’s try to calm it down. Where are we from and where are we going…?
- ---Swinging rhythm and gently flowing soft singing.
- Tamura: Next let’s see a dance of a warrior wandering in search of his ideal woman. The dynamic rhythm of drums infuses life into the dance.
- ---A bearded, long-haired man appeared on the stage and danced in fast and energetic rhythm.
- Tamura: I am so pleased to have had a chance to introduce wonderful Javanese art and culture to you today. Ms. Murtiyah’ s contribution to conservation of traditional culture despite weak economic bases is certainly great. (Tremendous applause)
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