- 2008年9月10日 (18:00-19:40)
- 福冈阿库罗斯 (Symphony Hall)
- Agnes Chang
由許鞍華 先生/女士 主讲的市民论坛
- 2008年9月13日 (13:30-16:35)
由萨维特里•古纳塞克拉 先生/女士 主讲的市民论坛
- 2008年9月14日 (16:00-18:00)
but has incorporated Asian views and experiences
As the Bangkok Declaration on Human Rights (1993) reveals, some Asian countries are critical of ‘universal human rights’, emphasizing instead that Asia has its own values. They have seen the Eurocentric concept of human rights as invasive, and are concerned that it might be used to interfere in their internal affairs.
From my own work experience, I believe that human rights are extremely important. Everyone should have the right to be protected from conflicts, from abuse of power, from exploitation and oppression. Everyone has the right to live in a peaceful society, free from violence and conflict.
The human rights concept was born from Western civil liberties, but it has changed much thanks to the ‘indivisibility of rights’. We now think that rights of groups like the handicapped, the elderly and children are also important. So are individual civil liberties. Recent treaties, for example, concerning women, children, the elderly, and the handicapped, have incorporated both civil liberties and basic needs like education and health. With the passage of time, the importance of families has been recognized. Communities, and the rights of communities have also been recognized, and the value of care and respect in relationships has been acknowledged. For example, responsibility to children means that they must be brought up in a good environment to become good citizens. If they suffer from abuse and violence, the state has a responsibility to intervene. Thus many Asian countries, including Japan, have enacted laws for preventing domestic violence and child abuse. The purpose of these laws is states’ intervention, if necessary.
Think about South Asia. Some states, such as India, have achieved outstanding economic growth. But the states are also responsible for ensuring education and health care, and therefore they are culpable if they fail to do this. Non-state actors like private companies also have responsibilities, although in different spheres. In the context of Western tradition, the prevention of human rights abuse was regarded as exclusively a state responsibility. But recently it is understood that non-state actors are also accountable in regard to human rights.
International human rights have developed very much from their roots in merely Eurocentric liberalism. Asia and other areas of the world have contributed considerably to this progress by expressing their ideas at both national and international levels. Asian views have helped broaden the original concept of human rights in many areas, especially in the interpretation of human rights, in children’s rights, in women’s rights, in the definition of equality, discrimination, abuse, and oppression, in both constitutional and case law. As the connotations of human rights grow more extensive, they eventually become international standards to be adopted by individual countries.
由沙姆斯•阿姆里•峇哈鲁丁 先生/女士 主讲的市民论坛
- 多民族, 多文化, 和一个<国民> : 马来西亚的经验
- 2008年9月14日 (13:30-15:30)
Keynote Speech: Shamsul Amri Baharudin
Malaisian diversity enriches people’s experience
Malaysia is one nation, but has many ethnicities and many cultures. Its population includes 50% natives Malay, 23% Chinese, 7% Indians; and 7% others (including Siamese, Eurasians, and Pakistanis). In religion, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity and Hinduism coexist, and there are also Confucianism, Taoism and shamanism, and various other religious beliefs from China. The languages spoken are equally diverse, and include Malay, English, Mandarin, Tamil, Iban and Kazatan in Borneo, and more than 200 local languages.
These facts show Malaysia’s incredibly rich diversity. The provocative question, ‘Is diversity advantageous or disadvantageous to Malaysia?’ has often been asked by scholars across the world. My answer is, ‘Malaysian diversity enriches people’s experience.’
Malaysian people understand that everyone is different, and that their tastes and objectives also differ. But how can we deal with differences based on real diversity? Diversity as such is fine, but it should be controlled somehow. Otherwise our nation might become dangerously explosive. But I think we can handle difference and diversity in various ways.
In future, it will be good for Malaysia to have a two-party system because this will provide a watchdog and help maintain a good balance. To survive as a nation, Malaysians must continue on negotiating at every level in society to ensure that each culture is recognized by the others. This is vital, and certainly has been very effective.
由法丽达•帕尔文 先生/女士 主讲的市民论坛
- 传向世界的 巴乌尔歌曲晚会
- 2008年9月13日 (17:00-19:00)
- IMS Hall
Spreading love of mankind through Lalon songs
The more I know the songs of Lalon and try to understand his philosophy, the more new realizations have been born inside me. Now I believe simplicity is the real expression of humanity. Absolute freedom and happiness of human being lie in leading a simple and easy lifestyle. Now I do not consider myself just as a singer of Lalon songs but also a researcher and campaigner of Lalon. In this world of increasing wars and clashes I am trying to foster and spread the message of brotherhood and humanity among the people through the songs of Lalon.